The marshes were the front line of the iran iraq war from 1980 to 1988 and posed an especially difficult and desolate landscape for combat. This study assessed wetland changes in the southern iraqi marshlands using remotely sensed data from 1986 to 2019 using landsat satellite imagery for four epochs. Nov 05, 2004 records show about 80,000 still live in the marshes, tens of thousands fled to refugee camps in iran and more than a 100,000 relocated to iraqi cities. The marshlands used to be the largest wetland ecosystem in. The plan of action for the marshes was in fact linked to the wish to control iranian intruders, who entered iraq through the marshes. An ecological assessment of the marshes of iraq pdf. Marsh arabs project gutenberg selfpublishing ebooks. Jan 18, 2017 iraqs marsh arabs test the waters as wetlands ruined by saddam are reborn in the countrys southern marshes, the government is helping families to rebuild their floating communities, 25 years. Jul 18, 2016 the wetlands, which supports about 40 species of birds, is an important migratory stop as they fly from siberia to africa. The other two marshes, central also locally known as the qurna marsh with.
The former president had transformed the largest wetland ecosystem in southwest. Broadbent university of portsmouth, uk abstract if eco architecture is a matter of designing with nature then the sumerian mudhif is a paradigmatic example. Restoration of the southern iraqi marshes voices for iraq. Alfehoodalamayrehalkarya, al hammar marsh 15 204 30 57 2. Mesopotamian marshlands declared iraqs first national park ens. Jan 18, 2011 with the marshes virtually destroyed the wildlife populations collapsed.
Pdf on jan 1, 2004, hanne kirstine adriansen and others published. But since the fall of saddam there has been a concerted effort to restore the marshes and reestablish both the wildlife and the marsh arab way of life. The most important development in the 20 th century was the establishment of modern water controls in the tigris and euphrates basins. Agenda more than 20 participants, international and from all over iraq gathered in erbil, iraq for the save the. Water quality of the iraqi southern marshes 194 values were observed during autumn 0. It is a rare aquatic landscape in the desert, providing habitat for the marsh arabs and. The mesopotamian marshes of iraq were once the largest wetland in the. Iraq s southern marshes something special to be conserved. The first extensive scholarly ethnographic account of marsh arab life was marsh dwellers of the euphrates delta 1962, by iraqi. To raise awareness of pollution in order to improve water quality of rivers 8. What happened to the iraqi marsh arabs and their land. Iraqis turn to ecotourism to save marshes mena gulf news. Usually, saddam husseins plans for the marshes are thought to be an outcome of the 1991, first gulf war.
Afp then, lunch in a mudhif or guesthouse, also run by locals. This action displaced 200,000 to 250,000 madan marsh arabs and severely harmed an important ecosystem. But in fact they date back to the 198088, iraniraq war. In the 1980s, at war with iran, saddam hussein sped up their destruction so the. Jul 18, 2016 unesco has named iraqi marshlands once ravaged by dictator saddam hussein as a world heritage site, a bright spot for a country where jihadists have repeatedly sought to wipe out history. Historically the marshlands, mainly composed of the separate but adjacent central, hawizeh and hammar marshes, used to be the largest wetland ecosystem of western eurasia. The marsh arabs is a travel book first published in 1964 that describes the 8 years during the 1950s that wilfred thesiger spent travelling in iraqi marshs where the ma. Briefly, zooplankton samples were collected on monthly basis from different sites and different locations in al hawizeh marsh, central marsh and east and west of al hammar marsh. Elemental analysis of river, marshes and ground water in thi qar region, iraq 2. May some of ebooks not available on your country and only available for those who subscribe and depend to the source of library websites. It was his first trip to iraq, and he accompanied pournelle there to assess the feasibility of bringing back the marshes and gauge iraqis will to do so. Iraq marshes face grave new threat by jim muir bbc news, baghdad life in the marshes is based on water buffalo and sustainable hunting iraq s southern marshes, by far the middle easts most. Water buffalo in the iraqi marshes page 9 thi qar governorate site monthly sampling code of animals heads coordinates n e heads. The marshes had served as a base for a shia insurrection against saddam husseins sunniled baathist regime, so hussein drained the marshes largely to deny their use by insurgents and to punish the madan for their participation in.
Efforts to rehabilitate the marshes have returned water to. Assessment of environmental changes in the iraqi marshes. Today,the marsh arab population living near the marshes is estimated to be between 75,000 and 85,000,and those living actually within the marshes proba. Restoration activities summary during the 1990s, saddam hussein drained approximately 90% of the iraqi marshes. Martyrs of the iraqi marshes they survived saddam, but now the marsh arabs are losing a battle against nature, reports patrick cockburn, winner of the orwell prize for journalism 2009. Area made up of four archaeological sites and three wetland marshes in southern iraq was once ravaged by saddam hussein. The program is a comprehensive, multivision project aims for careful restoration of the marshes after its disastrous devastation. My knowledge of the marshes of southern iraq and the marsh arabs stems from two roots. The marshes were once home to millions of birds and the stopover for millions of migratory birds, including flamingo, pelican and heron as they migrated from siberia to africa. At the heart of this work is azzam alwash, an iraqi, who himself fled saddams regime. Iraqi marshlands named as unesco world heritage site.
He says it was like draining the florida everglades except that the iraqi marshes are twice as big. The iraqi marshlands and the marsh arabs this ebook list for those who looking for to read the iraqi marshlands and the marsh arabs, you can read or download in pdf, epub or mobi. This led to a decrease in the great floods that had affected iraq and consequently also the marshes. Still based in paris, kachachi is a freelance writer and local correspondent for many arabiclanguage newspapers and writes both fiction and nonfiction prolifically, honing a particularly realistic. By around 2000, only about 10 percent of these marshes.
A researchwriting assignment on the material covered is due following completion of. Bbc news middle east iraq marshes face grave new threat. Until a decade ago the southeast was an area of marshes that covered 20,000 square kilometres, the largest such region in the middle east. Some iraqis would suggest that tchaikovskys swans, as in his swan lake ballet, were actually hatched in the summer in the marshes and hence they are iraqi, rather than russian.
Hussein dug a series of canals that diverted the water, drying up 90 percent of the marshes, which were once the largest wetland ecosystem of western. Jul 28, 2015 using newly available iraqi government archives, this paper argues that the destruction of the marshes was the result of a complex interplay between sectarianism, development planning, and security imperatives. Occurrence of heavy metals levels in water and inhabitants. If the work of the iraqi and american scientists involved in the sealands programme is successful, the marshes may yet be turned to a new use, to improve the quality of the environment. When saddam husseins regime collapsed, it appeared iraq s onceabundant marshlands had been destroyed forever. Marsh arab civilisation disappearing as iraqi wetlands are. Save the tigris and iraqi marshes campaign strategy.
The marshlands used to be the largest wetland ecosystem in western eurasia, representing a rare aquatic landscape in the desert and providing a habitat for important populations of wildlife. In postwar reconstructionera iraq, eden facilitated economic and political goals of the occupation. Iraqiborn journalist inaam kachachi has made her life a parisianarabic fusion, moving away from baghdad and to paris in 1979 to complete a phd. Aug 02, 20 mesopotamian marshlands declared iraqs first national park posted by news editor in land use, latest news, rss on august 2, 20 9. The dewan award is the newest prize to join the tamayouz excellence awards programme that champions and celebrates the best of architecture in iraq. It is a rare aquatic landscape in the desert, providing habitat for the marsh. Oct 28, 2004 they were also a refuge out of reach of iraqi dictator saddam hussein, who, after the 1991 gulf war, drained the marshes as part of his effort to put down a rebellion by iraqs shiite muslims. The inspiration for the bibles garden of eden is now a. Eightyfive stations were studied, some of which appear to overlap with others in this image. The other two marshes,central also locally known as the qurna marsh with the. Abdulsahib marine science centre, university of basrah, basrah, iraq issn 1817 2695 received 2692005, accepted 1562006 abstract in this paper, the white land snail monacha obstructa pfeiffer,1842, is recorded for the first time in basrah.
The iraqi marshes are located in the lower mesopotamian basin, in the vast floodplain wetlands created by the tigriseuphrates river system. Tamayouz excellence award is delighted to announce the winners of the dewan award for architecture and its 2018 theme, school in the iraqi marshes. The draining of the marshes of southern iraq, now being carried out by saddam hussein in an attempt to drive out dissident marsh arabs, is not a new plan. The celebration included activities for kids on wetlands, documentary film on ramsar and marshes in the south of iraq in addition to a photo gallery. The mesopotamian marshes or iraqi marshes are a wetland area located in southern iraq and partially in southwestern iran and kuwait. Iraqi marshlands, marsh arabs, landscape settlements, cultural specificity. The first extensive scholarly ethnographic account of marsh arab life was marsh dwellers of the euphrates delta 1962, by iraqi anthropologist s. Pdf change detection and building spatial geodatabase. Community level initiatives a training kit english and arabic, 2005.
Abstract one hundred eight of water samples have been collected from six stations in alhammar marshes. Jul 19, 2016 iraqi governments since the 1950s began draining parts of the marshes to expand agriculture and drill for oil. Scientists fight to save iraqs marshes nov 5, 2004. They had virtually no chance of earning a traditional living by fishing and raising water buffalo. Bbc earth news restoring iraqs wetland marshes to the.
This video introduces the natural beauty, people, culture, and historic significance of the iraqi marshes in the iraqi southeast, between the tigris and euphrates rivers a civilization of marsh arabs dating back continuously over 5,000 years to the sumerian people. Missan governorate is to the northeast, while thi qar is to the southwest. Pdf what happened to the iraqi marsh arabs and their land. The iraqi leaders tactics were surgically precise in the spring of 1984. Iraqi marshlands, the town of hasankeyf in turkey, the spring of kani bil and the marshes of hoor al azim in iran. After the first gulf war 1991, the iraqi government revived a program to divert the flow of the tigris river and the euphrates river away from the marshes. Restoration of the southern iraqi marshes a challenging, contemporary and informative course on a worldclass hot topic brings the front lines and the environmental realities of iraq to your desktop puts you in touch with concerned scientists, engineers, students and journalists. An architects approach, refers to professor alexandru sandus writing about.
Initial results suggest that enough water is present in southern iraq to partially restore the marshlands, if the water diversion structures constructed by the regime of saddam. A new record of a white terrestrial snail obstructa. First, an introduction to the marsh arabs and the iraqi marshes. These marshes were considered as feeding and nesting area for many residents and migratory water birds allouse, 1960 and 1961. Iraqs marshlands, nearly destroyed under saddam, are. It was the home of about a half million madan, or marsh arabs, who are shiites. Ali3 abstract the iraqi marsh lands, which are known as the garden of eden, cover an area about 1520 103 km2 in the. As i read the book return to the marshes which it really discloses the autobiography written by its author i dont know how he for three times came to the region even at the war time that witnessed a savage broken out war between iraq and iran. We used to visit our land, sometimes spending two seasons of the year enjoying the fishing and supervising the harvests. First, my family acquired a reasonablysized property of 25 hectares in the heart of the marshes. Despite numerous conflicts, iraq s writers display incredible literary virtuosity and versatility, moving between genres and atmospheres to capture the. Thousands of iranian troops paid the ultimate price.
The marshes are home to 40 species of birds, and several species of fish, plus demarcating a range limit for a number of bird species. Leiderman marshlands of southern iraq sample syllabus for 3credit, collegelevel online course 6 part i. Desperate plight of the mesopotamian marshes, southern iraq. This was evident when the kurds obtained official iraqi documents after the liberation of iraqi kurdistan in 1991. Occurrence of heavy metals levels in water and inhabitants of iraqi marshes mohammed fadhil abo ksour department of microbiology college of science al mustansiriyah university baghdad, iraq. Campaign to save iraq s historic marshes gathers pace iraq s historic southern marshes, a spectacularly beautiful haven that brimmed with wildlife, was a jewel in iraq s crown.
The marshes were home to half of the worlds population of the rare marbled teal and more than 90% of the world population of the basra reed warbler. Iraqi forces had learned to use portable dams and sluices to dryout the marshes, allowing advances by iraqi mechanized forces. Division of early warning and assessment, united nations environment programme. The journalist and travel writer gavin young followed in thesigers footsteps, writing return to the marshes. Restoring the garden of eden, iraq nadhir alansari1, sven knutsson2 and ammar a. It was first built in the marshes of what is now southern iraq. Mar 21, 2014 this video introduces the beauty, people, culture, and historic significance of the iraqi marshes in the iraqi southeast, between the tigris and the euphrates rivers a civilisation of marsh. The restoration of the iraqi marshlands is a vital environmental and development. Abdulsahib marine science centre, university of basrah, basrah, iraq issn 1817 2695 received 2692005. The marsh arabs pdf download full download pdf book. The eden again project included development of a hydrologic model of the marshes to determine the quantity of water necessary to restore various areas of the marshlands. A new record of a white terrestrial snail obstructa pfeiffer. Ests for drinking water provision a training kit english and arabic, 2005.
Elemental analysis of river, marshes and ground water in thi. Iraqs marshlands bloom again, restoring traditional way. Working to save the iraqi marshes public radio international. Reversing saddams ecocide of iraqi marshes harvard gazette. Status of water birds in restored southern iraqi marshes. The study area the present study area is within thi qar nassiriyah province and located in southern iraq between the provinces of waset to the north, basra to the south, maysan amarah. Change detection and building spatial geodatabase for iraqi marshes conference paper pdf available september 2018 with 48 reads how we measure reads. Tourists sitting inside a floating palm reedwoven house in the marshes of the southern iraqi district of chibayish. Nevertheless, saddam husseins plans for the marshes were related to marshes use as a hiding ground for iraqi outlaws, dissidents, and opponents of the regime. Local industries in the marshes are based on manual labor that dependents on the. Jul, 2014 this april, a few weeks after pournelle took southern iraqi doctoral students to south carolinas marshes, she arranged for morris to ride through basras remaining marshes on a skiff. Dewan award for architecture school in the iraqi marshes. British ideals of eden produced by travel writers about the iraqi marshes in the. Save the tigris and iraqi marshes campaign strategy meeting report erbil, may 1012, 2015 1.1054 1075 1152 1377 537 1192 1147 306 3 1111 1144 477 31 1024 676 1368 545 812 821 583 893 296 384 1232 1480 990 649 1297 705 453 601 847 892